Knowing how the COVID-19 pandemic started is the public health question of our time. This page will be continuously updated with information regarding The COVID-19 Origins Investigation being led by the House Energy and Commerce Committee.
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House Energy and Commerce Committee Republican Leader Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-WA), Subcommittee on Health Republican Leader Brett Guthrie (R-KY), and Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations Republican Leader Morgan Griffith (R-VA) sent a letter to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to join the Committee to advance a complete, scientific, independent investigation into the origins of the COVID-19 pandemic
The Leaders’ letter to NIH Director Dr. Francis Collins was the most comprehensive breakdown to date on what we know and don’t know from China about the origins of COVID-19, including key questions about where the World Health Organization’s (WHO) investigation fell short into the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV). The Leaders requested NIH grant documents and progress reports, among other documents, required by NIH policy and by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget to contain mandatory reporting elements such as research accomplishments, findings, and outcomes, and information about research participants and collaborating organizations.
KEY: In February 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO), in a joint mission with China, attempted to investigate the origins of the pandemic, but the Chinese government restricted access to relevant documents and witnesses.
The WHO released a study after the incomplete investigation. As a result, even the WHO Director-General Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus concluded that further investigation into the origins was needed, including investigation into the laboratory leak origins hypothesis
Upon Dr. Tedros’s call for further investigation, Leader Rodgers said: “As the Republican Leader of the House Energy and Commerce Committee — which has jurisdiction over public health — I fully support an independent, scientific investigation that gets to the bottom of how this pandemic started. That’s why my colleagues, Rep. Morgan Griffith and Rep. Brett Guthrie, and I are urging the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to support and assist a transparent, independent, and science-based investigation. It’s of paramount importance to prevent a future pandemic and to enhance America’s biosecurity.”
Leaders Rodgers, Guthrie, and Griffith sent a letter to EHA requesting information pertaining to the COVID-19 Origins Investigation. EHA, a National Institute of Health (NIH) grant recipient, sub-awarded $598,500 in NIH grant funds to the WIV during 2014-2019 for bat coronavirus research.
Excerpt of the Committee’s inquiry and investigation into EHA:
“We believe through its research activities, collaborations, and EHA’s relationship with the WIV as a federal award subrecipient, that EHA has information and documents that will provide insight into the WIV’s bat coronavirus information and pathways for further research in this area.
“EHA officials have repeatedly stated that they do not believe the pandemic was caused by a lab leak and have solicited support for others to advance that position publicly. However, there is substantial and increasing support from the international scientific community and public health experts, including from the World Health Organization Director-General Tedros, for further investigation into COVID origins, including the possibility of a lab leak.
“Since EHA is confident that a lab leak is not the cause, we expect you to welcome the opportunity to share any and all information, documents, and expertise you have related to bat coronavirus research at the WIV.”
Dr. Peter Daszak with EcoHealth Alliance (EHA) – a long-time partner of the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV) engaged in bat coronavirus research. EHA and the WIV for several years collected bat coronaviruses in China. These virus samples were then genetically sequenced at the WIV and perhaps elsewhere. As a result of its partnership with EHA, the WIV has assembled what is believed to be the largest collection of bat coronaviruses.
In an Energy and Commerce Health subcommittee hearing, NIH Director Dr. Collins told Leader Rodgers that he believed complete, scientific investigation was needed into the origins of COVID-19. This followed Leader Rodgers questioning him about supporting the Covid-19 Origins Investigation underway by the Energy Commerce Committee.
Leaders Rodgers, Guthrie, and Griffith expand their investigation and ask Secretary of State Antony Blinken to release classified and declassified documents related to their January 15, 2021 fact sheet.
In January 2021, the United States State Department published a fact sheet about the activity at the WIV. The fact sheet asserts that the WIV collaborated with the Chinese military on “secret projects” in conducting classified research, including laboratory animal experiments.
Secretary of State Antony Blinken said on April 11, 2021, “We need to get to the bottom of this. We need to do that precisely so we fully understand what happened, in order to have the best shot possible preventing it from happening again.”
When asked if COVID-19 could have been from a lab accident at WIV, Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, said “that possibility certainly exists and I am totally in favor of a full investigation of whether that could have happened.”
Leaders Rodgers, Guthrie, and Griffith send a letter to the director of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), requesting a classified briefing on a report LLNL had issued in May 2020 on the possible origins of COVID-19.
“The Sinclair Broadcast Group (SBG) recently reported that a classified study of the origin of SARS-CoV-2 conducted a year ago by scientists at the Z Division had concluded that the novel coronavirus at the heart of the current pandemic may have originated in a laboratory in China,” the Leaders write. “According to SBG, the Z Division report assessed that both the lab-origin theory and the zoonotic theory were plausible and warranted further investigation. A LLNL spokesperson confirmed the existence of the report to SBG.”
The letter also includes a request to have Dr. David J. Rakestraw, a senior science adviser who formerly directed LLNL’s biodefense programs and has been coordinating the lab’s technical response to COVID-19, brief the leaders.
Top scientists in the United States issued an open letter in Science, a peer-reviewed journal that publishes original scientific research plus reviews and analysis of current research and science policy to substantially advance scientific understanding.
Leaders Rodgers, Guthrie, and Griffith praised support from the scientific community for the COVID-19 origins investigation: “We are grateful these scientific leaders are speaking out on this matter and hope that others, including experts within the National Institutes of Health, will begin researching the virus’ origins. We must be willing to examine whether this pandemic started due to natural origins or a laboratory leak. This is a matter of common ground and shared purpose. We look forward to working with them and all who will follow the science in order to complete this investigation. We need less opinions and more data.”
The open letter from 18 scientists supports a complete, scientific investigation into the origins of the pandemic, including the possibility of a lab leak. The scientists and experts have conducted extensive research in microbiology, including coronaviruses. One of these scientists is Dr. Ralph Baric of the University of North Carolina who has a history of collaboration with the Wuhan Institute of Virology.
It reads in part, “ As scientists with relevant expertise, we agree with the WHO director-general, the United States and 13 other countries, and the European Union that greater clarity about the origins of this pandemic is necessary and feasible to achieve,” the scientists’ letter says. “We must take hypotheses about both natural and laboratory spillovers seriously until we have sufficient data. A proper investigation should be transparent, objective, data-driven, inclusive of broad expertise, subject to independent oversight, and responsibly managed to minimize the impact of conflicts of interest. Public health agencies and research laboratories alike need to open their records to the public.”
NIH Principal Deputy Director Lawrence A. Tabak sent a short letter in response to the March 18, 2021 letter from E&C Republican Leaders Rodgers, Guthrie, and Griffith. E&C Republican leaders considered the response by Tabak to be unresponsive because NIH did not address any of the 29 questions asked by the Representatives.
Republicans on the Energy and Commerce Committee sent a letter to the Comptroller General of the U.S. requesting that GAO conduct a technological assessment of microbial investigations so that the government can proactively address any failures or shortcomings and prevent future pandemics. This analysis will address which tools and technologies are necessary for forensic attribution of microbial strains, plus policy recommendations to help the government address these challenges.
Republicans on the Energy and Commerce Committee sent a letter to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Director Rochelle P. Walensky requesting a comprehensive investigation into pinpointing the date of the earliest COVID-19 cases in the U.S., which will help provide more clues to the origins of this pandemic. This comprehensive investigation would build on prior CDC’s research into early cases in the U.S.
House Energy and Commerce Committee Republican Leader Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-WA), Subcommittee on Health Republican Leader Brett Guthrie (R-KY), and Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations Republican Leader Morgan Griffith (R-VA) sent a letter to U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Administrator Samantha Power requesting documents and information related to USAID’s $2.26 million funding of an existing research consortium led by EcoHealth Alliance and University of California at Davis, to investigate the SARS-CoV-2 virus origin. The consortium partnered with the Wuhan Institute of Virology from 2009 to 2019 as part of the $220 million PREDICT project. PREDICT was one project that comprised part of USAID’s Emerging Pandemic Threat Program, designed to collect research samples and data for the purpose of detecting deadly viruses of pandemic potential and predicting their outbreak.
One sample collected by PREDICT in 2013 from a bat cave in China and provided to NIH by USAID was “a possible ancestor of SARS-CoV-2.” In the letter, Republican Committee leaders requested information and documents into an April 2020 grant extension to support efforts to examine COVID origins. Due to its unique long-term formal partnership with and capacity building of the WIV, USAID should also provide records specific to its COVID-19 origins – funded investigation, its capacity building of the WIV, and the training of its scientists on research techniques.
The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) responded to the letter from Republican Leaders Rodgers, Guthrie, and Griffith. The representatives requested separate classified briefings from the National Bioforensic Analysis Center (NBFAC) and the National Biological Threat Characterization Center (NBTCC) related to investigating the origins of COVID-19. A DHS official wrote on behalf of Homeland Security Secretary Alejandro Mayorkas saying that the NBTCC has not done any studies on the origins of COVID-19. With respect to NBFAC, the official said that the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) should be contacted as the NBFAC conducts its technical work at the FBI’s direction.
Acting Assistant Secretary of State Naz Durakoglu responded to the May 6, 2021 letter from Leaders Rodgers, Guthrie, and Griffith with a brief response. The May 6th letter to Secretary of State Antony Blinken requested that the State Department update and release or declassify additional information regarding the statement in the January 15, 2021 State Department Fact Sheet that the Wuhan Institute of Virology collaborated with the Chinese military in conducting classified research, including laboratory animal experiments. Asst. Sec. Durakoglu says the State Department and Biden administration also believe that the origins of COVID-19 must be investigated but didn’t address the leaders’ requests.
House Energy and Commerce Committee Republican Leader Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-WA), Subcommittee on Health Republican Leader Brett Guthrie (R-KY), and Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations Republican Leader Morgan Griffith (R-VA) sent their third information request letter to National Institutes of Health (NIH) Director Francis Collins.
In published reports over the past few months and a recent staff briefing with NIH officials, Energy and Commerce Committee staff learned about research performed at the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV) on mice, and the possibility that these may have been “humanized mice.” We need NIH to provide documents to confirm if this may have been gain-of-function research at a time when there was a moratorium on such research in the United States. Part of the leaders’ concerns include whether the United States government may have funded research that had the potential to start a pandemic.
The leaders also reiterated their call for NIH transparency and again requested previously requested documents, including information on a grant to EcoHealth Alliance on bat coronavirus research with the WIV.
House Energy and Commerce Committee Republican Leader Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-WA), Subcommittee on Health Republican Leader Brett Guthrie (R-KY), and Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations Republican Leader Morgan Griffith (R-VA) sent their fourth information letter to National Institutes of Health (NIH) Director Francis Collins.
This new letter raises questions about biosafety concerns at the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV) and whether the NIH appropriately assessed such concerns prior to sending U.S. taxpayer funds to conduct research there. In particular, the leaders ask about grants that were awarded to EcoHealth Alliance by the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), even after NIH reportedly knew about these biosafety concerns.
The leaders ask the NIH to immediately make arrangements for a staff briefing from NIAID officials and requested answers to several questions by September 7, 2021.
House Energy and Commerce Committee Republican Leader Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-WA), Subcommittee on Health Republican Leader Brett Guthrie (R-KY), and Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations Republican Leader Morgan Griffith (R-VA) released a statement after the Intercept published over 900 pages of documents showing the NIAID funded risky coronavirus research in China through EcoHealth Alliance.
“These NIH grant documents demonstrate that Dr. Fauci and Dr. Collins have not been honest with the American people. For months, Dr. Fauci dismissed any consideration of the lab leak theory despite, or perhaps because of, his agency’s involvement in risky coronavirus research at the Wuhan lab. Dr. Collins has repeatedly denied what these documents now show. This is why we began asking these questions in March. Unfortunately, the Biden Administration has refused to comply with our oversight.”
Leaders Rodgers, Guthrie, and Griffith sent a follow-up letter to Secretary of State Antony Blinken asking him to cooperate with a letter the Committee sent him on May 6, 2021 requesting information pertaining to a January 15, 2021 fact sheet on the Wuhan Institute of Virology collaborating with the Chinese military.
Republican Leaders Rodgers, Guthrie, and Griffith released a statement in response to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) providing a limited number of documents previously requested from NIH in March and June 2021 related to the origins of the COVID-19 pandemic.
“We are reviewing these documents sent to us by the NIH, including EcoHealth Alliance’s Year Five progress report, which should have been submitted to the NIH two years earlier. We now know for certain that EcoHealth Alliance violated the terms of one of their grants that funded research in China.
“We are glad that the NIH is finally pursuing unpublished data from EcoHealth Alliance as we have urged for months, and as we pressed the NIH to do in June. However, it’s unacceptable that the NIH delayed asking EcoHealth Alliance to submit unpublished data about risky research that they were required to do under the terms of their grant.
“The NIH has acknowledged that EcoHealth violated the terms of its grant and has been non-compliant. Yet, at the same time, NIH takes the word of this grant policy violator that EcoHealth is fully accounting for its research and that none of it had anything to do with the pandemic.
“We need full compliance with Congressional oversight. These documents are only the first step from the NIH in rebuilding public trust. They must be fully transparent about any research they have funded in China and how they will ensure proper oversight of risky research in the future. They owe it to the American people to be a better partner in revealing how this pandemic started. Every day that goes by, it will be harder to get answers to best prepare us in preventing future pandemics.”
Republican Leaders Rodgers, Guthrie, and Griffith sent their fifth letter to NIH Director Francis Collins which reveals newly disclosed correspondence between NIH and EcoHealth Alliance on concerns surrounding EcoHealth’s risky Gain-of-Function (GOF) research.
During the U.S. government pause in gain-of-function research implemented during the Obama Administration in 2014, documents viewed by the Energy and Commerce Committee staff reveal that NIH was concerned in 2016 that EcoHealth Alliance was funding risky research at the Wuhan Institute of Virology in China. In response, EcoHealth Alliance’s president Peter Daszak dismissed NIH’s concerns with his explanation that EcoHealth’s research did not amount to gain-of-function and therefore, the experiments did not qualify to undergo additional risk assessment review by HHS. Despite a clear warning from Dr. Ralph Baric of the University of North Carolina, Dr. Zheng-Li Shi of the Wuhan lab, and others in their 2015 study that additional research on the chimeric viruses EcoHealth was researching pose GOF concerns, NIH uncritically accepted Daszak’s self-assessment and did not advance the research to HHS for independent risk assessment oversight review.
The Leaders raise their concern surrounding the NIH’s grant oversight process and its lax accountability of EcoHealth Alliance. EcoHealth refuses to cooperate with NIH’s grant oversight requests for information and since NIH’s suspension of one EcoHealth award in 2020, NIH subsequently approved two new multimillion grants to EcoHealth. While under NIH’s suspension EcoHealth Alliance has received more than $23.4 million in total grant funding from the U.S. government, including a $369,819 payment from the NIH suspended grant.
The Leaders ask NIH to respond by November 10, 2021.
State Department official Naz Durakoglu responded to the October 5, 2021 letter from Republican Committee Leaders Rodgers, Guthrie, and Griffith. The October letter was a follow-up inquiry to their May 6, 2021 request for the State Department to provide updated investigation information and to release and declassify supporting information the State Department relied on for their January 15, 2021 Fact Sheet: Activity at the Wuhan Institute of Virology. Highlights of the Fact Sheet included reports of how the Wuhan Institute of Virology collaborated with the Chinese military to conduct classified research, including laboratory animal experiments.
In the State Department’s response, Durakoglu explained that the Fact Sheet was based on the U.S. Government’s knowledge at the time. Durakoglu then pointed to the August 2021 report issued by the Intelligence Community for any new or updated information. The intelligence report was a 90-day review ordered by President Biden in May 2021, which did not result in a conclusion about the origins of the COVID-19 pandemic. This report has been made available to Committee Republicans.
Republican Leaders Rodgers, Guthrie, and Griffith sent a letter to National Academy of Medicine (NAM) Home Secretary Fuentes-Afflick regarding misconduct concerns about NAM member and EcoHealth Alliance’s president Peter Daszak. The Leaders requested NAM investigate Daszak for possibly violating the NAM member Code of Conduct and outlined numerous misconduct concerns about Daszak that warrant an investigation to protect the integrity of the scientific community, protect the reputations of NAM member scientists, and to protect NAM organizational operations from Daszak’s conflicts of interest. The Leaders question whether Daszak should remain a member of NAM.
The concerns include Daszak’s misleading public statements, conflicts of interest into Covid origins investigations, violation of data sharing agreements, and withholding research records despite requests for compliance from the NIH and from the Republican Leaders in their April 16th oversight request letter to EcoHealth Alliance. In addition, the Leaders point to Daszak’s failures to fulfill his responsibilities as a principal investigator on an NIH grant, such as accounting fully for federally funded risky research projects carried out by EcoHealth’s collaborator, the Wuhan Institute of Virology.
Energy and Commerce Committee Republican Leader Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-WA), Foreign Affairs Committee Republican Leader Michael McCaul (R-TX), and Committee on Science, Space, and Technology Republican Leader Frank Lucas (R-OK) sent a letter to President Biden on the administration’s lack of response to requests from Congress on the origins of COVID-19.
“Additionally, there remain many outstanding questions regarding the origins of COVID-19, the nature of classified military research conducted at the Wuhan Institute of Virology, and how funding from the United States supported that research,” the Leaders wrote. “As such, we reiterate our request that you declassify all relevant intelligence on this matter, as far as possible while protecting sources and methods. Congress and the American people have a right to know.”
The letter is accompanied by an example of a letter from each of the Committee Leaders to the administration requesting information that has gone unfulfilled.
House Energy and Commerce Committee Republican Leader Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-WA), Subcommittee on Health Republican Leader Brett Guthrie (R-KY), and Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations Republican Leader Morgan Griffith (R-VA) sent letters to three Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) agencies seeking details on their supporting research activities related to COVID-19 and other coronaviruses.
The letters, sent to the CDC, FDA, and NIH, ask a series of questions surrounding research that they may have supported involving coronaviruses and virus manipulation, and the sources of funding for that research.
Republican Leaders Rodgers, Guthrie, and Griffith have launched a probe into whether National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Director Dr. Anthony Fauci and former National Institutes of Health (NIH) Director Dr. Francis Collins suppressed scientific debate and information about the origins of COVID-19.
The leaders’ concern over suppression arises from recently disclosed emails involving virology experts with Dr. Fauci and Dr. Collins at the beginning of the pandemic where they appear to be trying to silence debate on the virus’ origins and discussion of whether it was related to laboratory research. The leaders ask numerous questions of Drs. Fauci and Collins, including for documents to be provided.
Republican Leaders Rodgers, Guthrie, and Griffith sent a letter to White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Acting Director Alondra Nelson asking the OSTP to survey all federal agencies to determine if they have received, reviewed, or funded a proposal that had anything to do with cleavage sites or furin with regards to coronaviruses since April 1, 2017.
The members request a response from Acting Director Nelson by May 31, 2022.
Republican Leaders Rodgers, Guthrie, and Griffith seek answers from Health and Human Services Secretary Xavier Becerra on the secretive nature of the HHS P3CO Framework. The Framework is supposed to guide the funding of research that could create or use a potential pandemic pathogen.
HHS and the NIH have not disclosed who sits on the P3CO review committee and several points of conflict that could arise within it. The members ask Sec. Beccera to respond to several of their questions by May 3, 2022 on the process, its review committee, and ethics problems.
Republican E&C Leaders Rodgers, Guthrie, and Griffith sent a letter to National Institutes of Health (NIH) Acting Director Lawrence Tabak requesting an investigation into EcoHealth Alliance and its president, Peter Daszak, into possible false statements and inadequate monitoring of grants given to EcoHealth Alliance. The members suspect Daszak and EcoHealth violated NIH policies and regulations regarding scientific research and grant applications and reports.
The members point to research EcoHealth sponsored on humanized mice and grant renewal applications which indicate EcoHealth withheld crucial research data from the NIH during the peer review process. The members ask that the NIH respond to a series of questions on this matter by May 16, 2022.