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The COVID-19 Origins Investigation


Knowing how the COVID-19 pandemic started is the public health question of our time. This page will be continuously updated with information regarding The COVID-19 Origins Investigation being led by the House Energy and Commerce Committee Republicans.

TIMELINE OF INVESTIGATION
March 18, 2021
Energy and Commerce GOP Launches The COVID-19 Origins Investigation

House Energy and Commerce Committee Republican Leader Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-WA), Subcommittee on Health Republican Leader Brett Guthrie (R-KY), and Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations Republican Leader Morgan Griffith (R-VA) sent a letter to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to join the Committee to advance a  complete, scientific, independent investigation into the origins of the COVID-19 pandemic

The Leadersletter to NIH Director Dr. Francis Collins was the most comprehensive breakdown to date on what we know and don’t know from China about the origins of COVID-19, including key questions about where the World Health Organization’s (WHO) investigation fell short into the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV).  The Leaders requested NIH grant documents and progress reports, among other documents, required by NIH policy and by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget to contain mandatory reporting elements such as research accomplishments, findings, and outcomes, and information about research participants and collaborating organizations. 

March 30, 2021
WHO Calls for Further Studies, Data on Origin of SARS-CoV-2 virus, Reiterates that all Hypotheses Remain Open 

KEY: In February 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO), in a joint mission with China, attempted to investigate the origins of the pandemic, but the Chinese government restricted access to relevant documents and witnesses. 

The WHO released a study after the incomplete investigation. As a result, even the WHO Director-General Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus concluded that further investigation into the origins was needed, including investigation into the laboratory leak origins hypothesis

Upon Dr. Tedros’s call for further investigation, Leader Rodgers said: “As the Republican Leader of the House Energy and Commerce Committee — which has jurisdiction over public health — I fully support an independent, scientific investigation that gets to the bottom of how this pandemic started. That’s why my colleagues, Rep. Morgan Griffith and Rep. Brett Guthrie, and I are urging the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to support and assist a transparent, independent, and science-based investigation. It’s of paramount importance to prevent a future pandemic and to enhance America’s biosecurity.”

April 16, 2021
Energy and Commerce GOP Expands The COVID-19 Origins Investigation to EcoHealth Alliance

Leaders Rodgers, Guthrie, and Griffith sent a letter to EHA requesting information pertaining to the COVID-19 Origins Investigation. EHA, a National Institute of Health (NIH) grant recipient, sub-awarded $598,500 in NIH grant funds to the WIV during 2014-2019 for bat coronavirus research. 

Excerpt of the Committee’s inquiry and investigation into EHA:

“We believe through its research activities, collaborations, and EHA’s relationship with the WIV as a federal award subrecipient, that EHA has information and documents that will provide insight into the WIV’s bat coronavirus information and pathways for further research in this area.

[…]

“EHA officials have repeatedly stated that they do not believe the pandemic was caused by a lab leak and have solicited support for others to advance that position publicly. However, there is substantial and increasing support from the international scientific community and public health experts, including from the World Health Organization Director-General Tedros, for further investigation into COVID origins, including the possibility of a lab leak.  

“Since EHA is confident that a lab leak is not the cause, we expect you to welcome the opportunity to share any and all information, documents, and expertise you have related to bat coronavirus research at the WIV. 

Dr. Peter Daszak with EcoHealth Alliance (EHA) a long-time partner of  the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV) engaged in bat coronavirus research.  EHA and the WIV for several years collected bat coronaviruses in China.  These virus samples were then genetically sequenced at the WIV and perhaps elsewhere.  As a result of its partnership with EHA, the WIV has assembled what is believed to be the largest collection of bat coronaviruses. 

April 28, 2021
NIH Director Says The COVID-19 Origins Investigation is Needed and Appropriate

In an Energy and Commerce Health subcommittee hearing, NIH Director Dr. Collins told Leader Rodgers that he believed complete, scientific investigation was needed into the origins of COVID-19. This followed Leader Rodgers questioning him about supporting the Covid-19 Origins Investigation underway by the Energy Commerce Committee. 

May 6, 2021
Energy and Commerce GOP Asks State Department to Declassify Documents about WIV Collaboration with Chinese Military

Leaders Rodgers, Guthrie, and Griffith expand their investigation and ask Secretary of State Antony Blinken to release classified and declassified documents related to their January 15, 2021 fact sheet.

In January 2021, the United States State Department published a fact sheet about the activity at the WIV. The fact sheet asserts that the WIV collaborated with the Chinese military on “secret projects” in conducting classified research, including laboratory animal experiments.

Secretary of State Antony Blinken said on April 11, 2021, “We need to get to the bottom of this. We need to do that precisely so we fully understand what happened, in order to have the best shot possible preventing it from happening again.”

May 11, 2021
Dr. Fauci Says He is In Favor of a Full Investigation into COVID-19 Origins

When asked if COVID-19 could have been from a lab accident at WIV, Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, saidthat possibility certainly exists and I am totally in favor of a full investigation of whether that could have happened.”

May 11, 2021
Energy and Commerce GOP Request Classified Briefing From Director of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Leaders Rodgers, Guthrie, and Griffith send a letter to the director of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), requesting a classified briefing on a report LLNL had issued in May 2020 on the possible origins of COVID-19.

“The Sinclair Broadcast Group (SBG) recently reported that a classified study of the origin of SARS-CoV-2 conducted a year ago by scientists at the Z Division had concluded that the novel coronavirus at the heart of the current pandemic may have originated in a laboratory in China,” the Leaders write. “According to SBG, the Z Division report assessed that both the lab-origin theory and the zoonotic theory were plausible and warranted further investigation. A LLNL spokesperson confirmed the existence of the report to SBG.”

The letter also includes a request to have Dr. David J. Rakestraw, a senior science adviser who formerly directed LLNL’s biodefense programs and has been coordinating the lab’s technical response to COVID-19, brief the leaders.

May 13, 2021
Top American Scientists Issue Open Letter in Support of The Covid-19 Origins Investigation 

Top scientists in the United States issued an open letter in Science, a peer-reviewed journal that publishes original scientific research plus reviews and analysis of current research and science policy to substantially advance scientific understanding.  

Leaders Rodgers, Guthrie, and Griffith praised support from the scientific community for the COVID-19 origins investigation: “We are grateful these scientific leaders are speaking out on this matter and hope that others, including experts within the National Institutes of Health, will begin researching the virus’ origins. We must be willing to examine whether this pandemic started due to natural origins or a laboratory leak.  This is a matter of common ground and shared purpose. We look forward to working with them and all who will follow the science in order to complete this investigation. We need less opinions and more data.” 

The open letter from 18 scientists supports a complete, scientific investigation into the origins of the pandemic, including the possibility of a lab leak. The scientists and experts have conducted extensive research in microbiology, including coronaviruses. One of these scientists is Dr. Ralph Baric of the University of North Carolina who has a history of collaboration with the Wuhan Institute of Virology.

It reads in part, “ As scientists with relevant expertise, we agree with the WHO director-general, the United States and 13 other countries, and the European Union that greater clarity about the origins of this pandemic is necessary and feasible to achieve,” the scientists’ letter says. “We must take hypotheses about both natural and laboratory spillovers seriously until we have sufficient data. A proper investigation should be transparent, objective, data-driven, inclusive of broad expertise, subject to independent oversight, and responsibly managed to minimize the impact of conflicts of interest. Public health agencies and research laboratories alike need to open their records to the public.”

May 21, 2021
Energy and Commerce GOP Asks DHS for Declassified Briefings on COVID-19 Origins

Leaders Rodgers, Guthrie, and Griffith sent a letter to Department of Homeland Security Secretary Alejandro Mayorkas requesting two classified briefings.

May 21, 2021
NIH OFFICIAL SENDS SHORT RESPONSE TO E&C’S MARCH 18 LETTER

NIH Principal Deputy Director Lawrence A. Tabak sent a short letter in response to the March 18, 2021 letter from E&C Republican Leaders Rodgers, Guthrie, and Griffith. E&C Republican leaders considered the response by Tabak to be unresponsive because NIH did not address any of the 29 questions asked by the Representatives.

June 3, 2021
E&C REPUBLICANS SEND LETTER TO GAO REQUESTING ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES TO IDENTIFY FUTURE PANDEMIC ORIGINS

Republicans on the Energy and Commerce Committee sent a letter to the Comptroller General of the U.S. requesting that GAO conduct a technological assessment of microbial investigations so that the government can proactively address any failures or shortcomings  and prevent future pandemics. This analysis will address which tools and technologies are necessary for forensic attribution of microbial strains, plus policy recommendations to help the government address these challenges.

June 8, 2021
E&C Republicans Request a More Comprehensive Investigation to Determine Accurate Date of First COVID-19 Case in the U.S.

Republicans on the Energy and Commerce Committee sent a letter to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Director Rochelle P. Walensky requesting a comprehensive investigation into pinpointing the date of the earliest COVID-19 cases in the U.S., which will help provide more clues to the origins of this pandemic. This comprehensive investigation would build on prior CDC’s research into early cases in the U.S.

June 10, 2021
E&C REPUBLICANS SEND SECOND LETTER TO NIH DIRECTOR REGARDING GRANTS ISSUED TO ECOHEALTH ALLIANCE

Republicans on the Energy and Commerce Committee sent a letter to the Director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Dr. Francis Collins, seeking grant reports and related documents to inform a complete, scientific, investigation into the origins of the COVID-19 pandemic.

June 28, 2021
E&C Republicans Seek Information From USAID on 2020 Grant on COVID-19 Origins

House Energy and Commerce Committee Republican Leader Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-WA), Subcommittee on Health Republican Leader Brett Guthrie (R-KY), and Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations Republican Leader Morgan Griffith (R-VA) sent a letter to U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Administrator Samantha Power requesting documents and information related to USAID’s $2.26 million funding of an existing research consortium led by EcoHealth Alliance and University of California at Davis, to investigate the SARS-CoV-2 virus origin.  The consortium partnered with the Wuhan Institute of Virology from 2009 to 2019 as part of the $220 million PREDICT project. PREDICT was one project that comprised part of USAID’s Emerging Pandemic Threat Program, designed to collect research samples and data for the purpose of detecting deadly viruses of pandemic potential and predicting their outbreak.

One sample collected by PREDICT in 2013 from a bat cave in China and provided to NIH by USAID was “a possible ancestor of SARS-CoV-2.” In the letter, Republican Committee leaders requested information and documents into an April 2020 grant extension to support efforts to examine COVID origins. Due to its unique long-term formal partnership with and capacity building of the WIV, USAID should also provide records specific to its COVID-19 origins – funded investigation, its capacity building of the WIV, and the training of its scientists on research techniques.

July 1, 2021
DHS RESPONDS TO E&C LEADERS REQUEST FOR CLASSIFIED BRIEFINGS

The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) responded to the letter from Republican Leaders Rodgers, Guthrie, and Griffith. The representatives requested separate classified briefings from the National Bioforensic Analysis Center (NBFAC) and the National Biological Threat Characterization Center (NBTCC) related to investigating the origins of COVID-19. A DHS official wrote on behalf of Homeland Security Secretary Alejandro Mayorkas saying that the NBTCC has not done any studies on the origins of COVID-19. With respect to NBFAC, the official said that the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) should be contacted as the NBFAC conducts its technical work at the FBI’s direction.

July 7, 2021
STATE DEPT. SENDS SHORT RESPONSE TO E&C LEADERS’ LETTER

Acting Assistant Secretary of State Naz Durakoglu responded to the May 6, 2021 letter from Leaders Rodgers, Guthrie, and Griffith with a brief responseThe May 6th letter to Secretary of State Antony Blinken requested that the State Department update and release or declassify additional information regarding the statement in the January 15, 2021 State Department Fact Sheet that the Wuhan Institute of Virology collaborated with the Chinese military in conducting classified research, including laboratory animal experiments. Asst. Sec. Durakoglu says the State Department and Biden administration also believe that the origins of COVID-19 must be investigated but didn’t address the leaders’ requests.

July 21, 2021
E&C Republican Leaders Again Ask NIH for Grant Documents Related to Humanized Mice Experiments and Wuhan Lab 

House Energy and Commerce Committee Republican Leader Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-WA), Subcommittee on Health Republican Leader Brett Guthrie (R-KY), and Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations Republican Leader Morgan Griffith (R-VA) sent their third information request letter to National Institutes of Health (NIH) Director Francis Collins.

In published reports over the past few months and a recent staff briefing with NIH officials, Energy and Commerce Committee staff learned about research performed at the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV) on mice, and the possibility that these may have been “humanized mice.” We need NIH to provide documents to confirm if this may have been gain-of-function research at a time when there was a moratorium on such research in the United States. Part of the leaders’ concerns include whether the United States government may have funded research that had the potential to start a pandemic.

The leaders also reiterated their call for NIH transparency and again requested previously requested documents, including information on a grant to EcoHealth Alliance on bat coronavirus research with the WIV.

August 24, 2021
E&C Republican Leaders Request Further Info From NIH & NIAID Following Concerns of Wuhan Lab Biosafety Procedures

House Energy and Commerce Committee Republican Leader Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-WA), Subcommittee on Health Republican Leader Brett Guthrie (R-KY), and Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations Republican Leader Morgan Griffith (R-VA) sent their fourth information letter to National Institutes of Health (NIH) Director Francis Collins.

This new letter raises questions about biosafety concerns at the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV) and whether the NIH appropriately assessed such concerns prior to sending U.S. taxpayer funds to conduct research there. In particular, the leaders ask about grants that were awarded to EcoHealth Alliance by the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), even after NIH reportedly knew about these biosafety concerns.

The leaders ask the NIH to immediately make arrangements for a staff briefing from NIAID officials and requested answers to several questions by September 7, 2021.

September 7, 2021
E&C Republican Leaders Respond to Publication of Documents on U.S. Funded Coronavirus Research in China

House Energy and Commerce Committee Republican Leader Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-WA), Subcommittee on Health Republican Leader Brett Guthrie (R-KY), and Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations Republican Leader Morgan Griffith (R-VA) released a statement after the Intercept published over 900 pages of documents showing the NIAID funded risky coronavirus research in China through EcoHealth Alliance.

“These NIH grant documents demonstrate that Dr. Fauci and Dr. Collins have not been honest with the American people. For months, Dr. Fauci dismissed any consideration of the lab leak theory despite, or perhaps because of, his agency’s involvement in risky coronavirus research at the Wuhan lab. Dr. Collins has repeatedly denied what these documents now show. This is why we began asking these questions in March. Unfortunately, the Biden Administration has refused to comply with our oversight.”

October 5, 2021
E&C Republicans Press Sec. Blinken on Whether Wuhan Lab Had Military Ties

Leaders Rodgers, Guthrie, and Griffith sent a follow-up letter to Secretary of State Antony Blinken asking him to cooperate with a letter the Committee sent him on May 6, 2021 requesting information pertaining to a January 15, 2021 fact sheet on the Wuhan Institute of Virology collaborating with the Chinese military.

October 20, 2021
Energy & Commerce GOP Leaders Statement on Documents Released by the NIH

Republican Leaders Rodgers, Guthrie, and Griffith released a statement in response to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) providing a limited number of documents previously requested from NIH in March and June 2021 related to the origins of the COVID-19 pandemic. 

“We are reviewing these documents sent to us by the NIH, including EcoHealth Alliance’s Year Five progress report, which should have been submitted to the NIH two years earlier. We now know for certain that EcoHealth Alliance violated the terms of one of their grants that funded research in China. 

“We are glad that the NIH is finally pursuing unpublished data from EcoHealth Alliance as we have urged for months, and as we pressed the NIH to do in June. However, it’s unacceptable that the NIH delayed asking EcoHealth Alliance to submit unpublished data about risky research that they were required to do under the terms of their grant.

“The NIH has acknowledged that EcoHealth violated the terms of its grant and has been non-compliant. Yet, at the same time, NIH takes the word of this grant policy violator that EcoHealth is fully accounting for its research and that none of it had anything to do with the pandemic.

“We need full compliance with Congressional oversight. These documents are only the first step from the NIH in rebuilding public trust. They must be fully transparent about any research they have funded in China and how they will ensure proper oversight of risky research in the future. They owe it to the American people to be a better partner in revealing how this pandemic started. Every day that goes by, it will be harder to get answers to best prepare us in preventing future pandemics.”

October 27, 2021
E&C Republican Leaders Reveal NIH Mismanaged Concerns Surrounding EcoHealth Alliance’s Risky Research in China

Republican Leaders Rodgers, Guthrie, and Griffith sent their fifth letter to NIH Director Francis Collins which reveals newly disclosed correspondence between NIH and EcoHealth Alliance on concerns surrounding EcoHealth’s risky Gain-of-Function (GOF) research.

During the U.S. government pause in gain-of-function research implemented during the Obama Administration in 2014, documents viewed by the Energy and Commerce Committee staff reveal that NIH was concerned in 2016 that EcoHealth Alliance was funding risky research at the Wuhan Institute of Virology in China. In response, EcoHealth Alliance’s president Peter Daszak dismissed NIH’s concerns with his explanation that EcoHealth’s research did not amount to gain-of-function and therefore, the experiments did not qualify to undergo additional risk assessment review by HHS. Despite a clear warning from Dr. Ralph Baric of the University of North Carolina, Dr. Zheng-Li Shi of the Wuhan lab, and others in their 2015 study that additional research on the chimeric viruses EcoHealth was researching pose GOF concerns, NIH uncritically accepted Daszak’s self-assessment and did not advance the research to HHS for independent risk assessment oversight review.

The Leaders raise their concern surrounding the NIH’s grant oversight process and its lax accountability of EcoHealth Alliance. EcoHealth refuses to cooperate with NIH’s grant oversight requests for information and since NIH’s suspension of one EcoHealth award in 2020, NIH subsequently approved two new multimillion grants to EcoHealth. While under NIH’s suspension EcoHealth Alliance has received more than $23.4 million in total grant funding from the U.S. government, including a $369,819 payment from the NIH suspended grant.

The Leaders ask NIH to respond by November 10, 2021.

November 23, 2021
State Dept. Sends Second Short Response to E&C Republican Leaders on State Dept. Fact Sheet

State Department official Naz Durakoglu responded to the October 5, 2021 letter from Republican Committee Leaders Rodgers, Guthrie, and Griffith. The October letter was a follow-up inquiry to their May 6, 2021 request for the State Department to provide updated investigation information and to release and declassify supporting information the State Department relied on for their January 15, 2021 Fact Sheet: Activity at the Wuhan Institute of VirologyHighlights of the Fact Sheet included reports of how the Wuhan Institute of Virology collaborated with the Chinese military to conduct classified research, including laboratory animal experiments.

In the State Department’s response, Durakoglu explained that the Fact Sheet was based on the U.S. Government’s knowledge at the time. Durakoglu then pointed to the August 2021 report issued by the Intelligence Community for any new or updated information. The intelligence report was a 90-day review ordered by President Biden in May 2021, which did not result in a conclusion about the origins of the COVID-19 pandemic. This report has been made available to Committee Republicans.

November 30, 2021
E&C Republican Leaders Request National Academy of Medicine Investigate EcoHealth Alliance President Peter Daszak for Misconduct

Republican Leaders Rodgers, Guthrie, and Griffith sent a letter to National Academy of Medicine (NAM) Home Secretary Fuentes-Afflick regarding misconduct concerns about NAM member and EcoHealth Alliance’s president Peter Daszak. The Leaders requested NAM investigate Daszak for possibly violating the NAM member Code of Conduct and outlined numerous misconduct concerns about Daszak that warrant an investigation to protect the integrity of the scientific community, protect the reputations of NAM member scientists, and to protect NAM organizational operations from Daszak’s conflicts of interest. The Leaders question whether Daszak should remain a member of NAM.

The concerns include Daszak’s misleading public statements, conflicts of interest into Covid origins investigations, violation of data sharing agreements, and withholding research records despite requests for compliance from the NIH and from the Republican Leaders in their April 16th oversight request letter to EcoHealth Alliance. In addition, the Leaders point to Daszak’s failures to fulfill his responsibilities as a principal investigator on an NIH grant, such as accounting fully for federally funded risky research projects carried out by EcoHealth’s collaborator, the Wuhan Institute of Virology.